Evolution of the internet

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First concept.

Licklider creates the concept of a “Intergalactic Network” — a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site — documented in a series of memos.



ARPA [later known as DARPA] funds Larry Roberts and Thomas Marill to create the first wide-area network connection — connecting the TX-2 at MIT to the Q-32 in Santa Monica through a dedicated telephone line with acoustic couplers.


The U.S. Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) connected four computer network nodes at the University of California, Los Angeles, (U.C.L.A.), the Stanford Research Institute (S.R.I.) in Menlo Park, Calif., U.C. Santa Barbara (UCSB), and the University of Utah.


Creation of ARPANET.

In 1971, ARPANET begins the year with 14 nodes — including East Coast universities. At the end of year, ARPANET consisted of 19 nodes.

1972 – 1973

In the first ten months of 1972, ARPANET had grown to 29 nodes.

In 1973, thirty institutions are connected to ARPANET — ranging from BBN, Xerox PARC, MITRE Corporation, NASA, National Bureau of Standards, and U.S. Air Force.


ARPANET goes international.

In 1973, DARPA [formerly ARPA] connects seven computers on four islands in Hawaii; and a satellite connection enables linkage to Norway and the UK.


Birth of TCP.

In May 1974, Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection". DARPA funds the development and implement of the TCP protocol described in the Kahn-Cerf paper.

Meanwhile daily traffic on ARPANET exceeds 3 million packets.


In 1977 Vint Cerf joins Bob Kahn at DARPA to work on the TCP/IP protocols.

In 1977, ARPANET consists of 61 nodes.


In 1977, Cerf and Kahn demonstrate ‘internetting’ — messages go from a van in the Bay Area across the U.S. on ARPANET, then to University College London and back via satellite to Virginia, and back through the ARPANET to the University of Southern California; proving the applicability of international deployment.